International Conference on the Shroud of Turin (ICST-2017)

Seeking Solutions to the Mysteries of the Shroud

The "International Conference on the Shroud of Turin" (ICST-2017) was held July 19 to 22 (Wednesday evening and all day Thursday, Friday, Saturday) at the large TRAC center in Pasco, Washington state, USA. 25 top Shroud researchers from Italy, Spain, France, Mexico, Australia, and the US made presentations at the conference, and three other researchers sent papers to be read by others. ICST-2017 included the latest research and new evidence on the history, DNA, pollen, image formation, and dating. The conference included 48 PowerPoint presentations on the most recent research and summaries of previous research, as well as three panel discussions to answer questions at the end of Thursday, Friday, and Saturday. This came to a total of about 34 hours of presentations and panel discussions. There were 11 tables of display items related to the Shroud of Turin, and three full size replicas of the Shroud of Turin. Video recordings of interviews with the researchers were made throughout the four days of the conference to make three documentaries on the Shroud. This included a documentary to be shown on TV in China in Mandarin, a documentary in English, and a video of a presentation on the Shroud in Arabic. The quality of the lunch and dinner menus were especially appreciated. Attendance was estimated to be about 275 on Wednesday and between 100 and 200 on the following days. The following is the schedule, abstracts of the presentations, and short biographies of the presenters. Access to the PowerPoint presentations and narration to the presentations will be included as they become available. Videos of the PowerPoint presentations were live-streamed to youtube.com during the conference.

Schedule, Abstracts, and Biographies

Schedule for ICST-2017

Wednesday, July 19, 2017, Introduction and Summary

6:30 pm to 6:45 pm Opening remarks, 15 min. Bob Rucker
6:50 pm to 7:50 pm Overview of the Shroud, 60 min. Robert Siefker
7:50 pm to 8:00 pm Break (10 minutes)
8:00 pm to 9:30 pm CSI Jerusalem, Case of the Missing Body, 90 min Russ Breault

Thursday, July 20, 2017, Preliminary Issues & History

8:00 am to 8:15 am Opening remarks, 15 min. Russ Breault
8:15 am to 8:40 am The Crown of Thorns: The Paradoxical Lordship of the King of Kings, 25 min. Andrew Dalton
8:45 am to 9:15 am Exposition of John 20, 30 min. Fred Baltz, presented by TBD
9:15 am to 10:00 am The Role of Epistemology in Approaching Truth in the Shroud of Turin, 45 min. Cheryl White
10:05 am to 10:20 am Break (15 minutes)
10:20 am to 11:00 am Physical Cause of Jesus' Death, 40 min. Pietro Pescetelli
11:05 am to 11:25 am Identifying the Tomb of Jesus for Turin Shroud Research, 20 min. Dean Schulz
11:30 am to 12:00 am The Mandylion in Constantinople: Literary and Iconographic Sources, 30 min. Alfonso Caccese, Emanuela
Marinelli, Laura Provera, and Domenico Repice
12:05 pm to 1:30 pm Lunch (85 minutes)
1:30 pm to 2:00 pm Who Saw the Mandylion and What was its Size? 30 min. Mario Latendresse
2:05 pm to 3:05 pm Geoffrey de Charny's Acquisition of the Shroud of Turin: Texts, Fictions, and Forgeries, 60 min. Jack Markwardt
3:10 pm to 3:25 pm Break (15 minutes)
3:30 pm to 4:05 pm The Holy Shroud and Othon de La Roche: notes for a working hypothesis on the “Missing Years” (1204-1356),
35 min. Alessandro Piana, read by Michela Marinelli
4:10 pm to 4:45 pm There is no Evidence that Othon de la Roche Acquired the Shroud of Turin", 35 min. Mario Latendresse
4:50 pm to 6:20 pm Dinner (90 minutes)
6:20 pm to 7:05 pm The Shroud of Turin and the Sainte-Chapelle of Paris, 45 min. Mario Latendresse
7:10 pm to 7:40 pm The image of Edessa included the whole body but only its empty reliquary arrived at Paris, 30 min. Cesar Barta,
Jorge Manuel Rodriguez Almenar
7:45 pm to 8:15 pm The Simony Theory: The Passage of the Shroud of Turin from Constantinople to Lirey, 30 min. Jack Markwardt
8:20 pm to 8:50 pm Avignon and the Shroud of Turin: Authenticity Confirmed, 30 min. Jack Markwardt
8:55 pm to 9:40 pm Panel discussion regarding the day’s presentations, 45 min. Panel

Friday, July 21, 2017, Science & Dating of the Shroud

8:00 am to 8:10 am Opening remarks, 10 min. Russ Breault
8:10 am to 8:40 am Uncovering the Frailties of Ecclesiastical Authorities in the Holy Shroud Guild Archives, 30 min. Giorgio Bracaglia
8:45 am to 9:20 am Pollens on the Shroud and the Sudarium of Oviedo, 35 min. Marzia Boi, presented by Cesar Barta
9:20 am to 9:55 am Sources of DNA on the Shroud, 35 min. Gianni Barcaccia
10:00 am to 10:15 am Break (15 minutes)
10:15 am to 10:35 am Use of the VP-8 Image Analyzer with a photograph of the Shroud of Turin exhibiting 3D results, 20 min. Janis
Winchester
10:40 am to 11:10 am The “Other Images” on the Shroud of Turin, 30 min. Paolo Di Lazzaro and Daniele Murra
11:15 am to 12:00 am Numismatic dating of the Turin Shroud through the analysis of Byzantine coins, 45 min. Giulio Fanti
12:00 pm to 12:05 pm Hypothesis of face-cloth wrapping of the Turin Shroud Man: experimental and numerical results, 5 min.
Gianmaria Concheri, Giulio Fanti and Sergio Rodella
12:10 pm to 1:10 pm Lunch (60 minutes)
1:10 pm to 2:10 pm Politics of the Shroud C-14 Dating, 60 min. Joe Marino
2:15 pm to 2:45 pm Invisible Reweave on the Shroud: Evidence For, 30 min. Joe Marino
2:50 pm to 3:10 pm Was the Shroud of Turin Invisibly Rewoven With Foreign Material at the Radiocarbon Site to Match the Rest of
the Cloth?, 20 min. Mark Antonacci
3:15 pm to 3:30 pm Break (15 minutes)
3:30 pm to 4:10 pm Dating Techniques other than Carbon Dating, 40 min. Giulio Fanti
4:15 pm to 4:55 pm Statistical Analysis of the 1988 Carbon dating, 40 min. Bob Rucker
5:00 pm to 6:30 pm Dinner (90 minutes)
6:30 pm to 7:05 pm The Neutron Absorption Hypothesis, 35 min. Bob Rucker
7:10 pm to 8:40 pm Art, Icon, or Relic, 90 minutes Russ Breault
8:45 pm to 9:30 pm Panel discussion regarding the day’s presentations, 45 min.

Saturday, July 22, 2017, Image Formation on the Shroud

8:00 am to 8:15 am Opening remarks, 15 min. Russ Breault
8:15 am to 8:40 am Image Characteristics, 25 min. Giulio Fanti
8:45 am to 9:00 am Explaining the Color of the Blood on the Shroud, 15 min. Paolo Di Lazzaro, A. Di Lascio, P. Iacomussi, M.
Missori, and D. Murra
9:05 am to 9:35 am Chemistry of the Image Imprinting Process, 30 min. Jose Carlos Godinez
9:40 am to 9:55 am Naturalistic Processes for Image Formation, 15 min. Mark Antonacci
10:00 am to 10:15 am Break (15 minutes)
10:15 am to 11:00 am Role of Radiation in Image Formation, 45 min Bob Rucker
11:05 am to 11:30 am Critical Analysis about the Radiation Direction in the Formation of the Shroud of Turin Image, 25 min.
R. Campion and Giulio Fanti
11:35 am – 12:55 pm Lunch (80 minutes)
12:55 pm to 1:25 pm Characteristics of the Image and Its Formation, 30 min. Giuseppe Baldacchini
1:30 pm to 2:00 pm A Geometric Mechanism for the Image Formation on the Shroud of Turin, 30 min. Mario Latendresse
2:05 pm to 2:35 pm Linen Coloration by Pulsed Radiation, A Review, 30 min. Paolo Di Lazzaro and Daniele Murra
2:40 pm to 3:00 pm Chromosome acting as loop antenna matches wavelength for colorization of Shroud of Turin, 20 min.
Tony Fleming
3:05 pm to 3:20 pm Break (15 minutes)
3:20 pm to 4:00 pm Image Formation by Corona Discharge, 40 min. Giulio Fanti
4:05 pm to 4:20 pm Experimental Effects of Coronal Discharges on Linen, 15 min. Michael Schaffer
4:25 pm to 4:55 pm Free Electron Model of Image Formation on the Shroud of Turin, 30 min. Chuck Rogers
5:00 pm to 6:30 pm Dinner (90 minutes)
6:30 pm to 7:00 pm Image Formation by Charged Nuclear Particles, 30 min. Arthur Lind
7:05 pm to 7:35 pm Evidence for Image Formation by a Cloth Collapse Model, 30 min. Mark Antonacci
7:40 pm to 7:55 pm Problems with the Cloth Collapse Hypothesis for Image Formation, 15 min. Bob Rucker
8:00 pm to 8:20 pm Do we really need new evidence and arguments about the Turin Shroud? 20 min. Tristan Casabianca
8:25 pm to 9:10 pm Panel discussion regarding the day’s presentations, 45 min.
9:10 pm to 9:30 pm Where are We Now, and Where do we go from Here? 20 min. Mark Antonacci



Wednesday, July 19, 2017, Introduction and Summary

6:50 pm to 7:50 pm “Overview of the Shroud” by Robert Siefker.
The presentation is a Critical Summary of observations, data and hypotheses related to the Shroud of Turin covering Historical Evidence, Medical Forensic Evidence, Linen Cloth Evidence, Image Characteristic Evidence, and includes a review and evaluation of the major Image Formation Hypotheses that have been proposed over the last 100 years. The presentation is based on a publication of the Turin Shroud Center of Colorado (TSC) that is headed by John Jackson (PhD in physics) who headed the landmark Shroud of Turin Research Project (STURP). The TSC publication is entitled “The Shroud of Turin: A Critical Summary of Observations, Data, and Hypotheses” which includes many pieces of data that trace their source back to the research conducted by the STURP team, as well as data from the broad spectrum of other scientific and historic research that has been conducted on the Shroud, both before and after the STURP expedition.

8:00 pm to 9:30 pm “CSI Jerusalem, Case of the Missing Body” by Russ Breault.
A full documentation of the scientific evidence and the historical trail that supports the probable authenticity. Plus, a complete analysis of the Shroud as it relates to Scripture—a detailed depiction of the crucifixion ordeal, analysis of what may have happened in the tomb and an exploration of the post-resurrection body concluding with a study of Doubting Thomas and how his story relates to the Shroud. Appealing to both mind and heart, it is a compelling and inspiring presentation. 90 Minutes.

Thursday, July 20, 2017, Preliminary Issues & History

8:15 am to 8:40 am “The Crown of Thorns: The Paradoxical Lordship of the King of Kings” by Andrew Dalton.
Following a description of the wounded head in the light of natural reason, I turn to the Biblical witness to explore the theological meaning of the crown of thorns. In short, we will see that: 1) Thorns first appear as a punishment for Adam’s sin (cf. Gen 3:18). 2) For Jesus, thorns are a metaphor for moral evil (cf. Matt 7:16f). 3) Thorns enter into the typological relationship between Isaac’s sacrifice and the death of Christ (cf. Gen 22). In Jesus, God provides the Passover Lamb, who takes away the sins of the world (cf. John 1:29; 1 Cor 5:7). Finally, deep irony lies behind the mock worship, “Hail, King of the Jews” (Matt 27:29): whereas worldly despots lord it over their subjects (cf. Mt 20:25), this good shepherd lays down his life to save his lost sheep (cf. John 10:11). Christ is an upside-down king in a paradoxical kingdom. Appropriately, he wears a crown of thorns.

8:45 am to 9:15 am “Exposition of John 20” by Fred Boltz, read by TBD.
This presentation looks at the description of Jesus’ tomb as seen by Peter, and the Beloved Disciple (John 20) in light of Gospel themes, special vocabulary, the internal unity of the Gospel, and the revelatory message inherent in the scene as described. Its proposal for the proper translation of verse 7 differs from what one finds in standard Bible translations, because translators do not take these other matters into account. Scholar/commentators do, and reach different conclusions from translators at times. So, we propose: “He (Simon) observed the linen cloths lying, and the sudarion, which had been upon his head, not lying with the burial cloths, but separate from view where it was at first.” In other words, the sudarion was still within the shroud. No other way of understanding verse 7 can stand. What Peter observed was the outline of the sudarion, repurposed as a chin band. This should be the starting point for evaluating whether the Shroud of Turin and the Sudarium of Oviedo comport with the biblical evidence.

9:15 am to 10:00 am “The Role of Epistemology in Approaching Truth in the Shroud of Turin” by Cheryl White.
From the time of the ancient Greek philosophers through the Age of Enlightenment and the Scientific Revolution, man has presumed the existence of universal truth as something that is accessible and knowable. From the Platonic Doctrine of Forms that established the foundations of what would become a faith-based epistemology seeking ideal and perfect forms, to the Aristotelian universe of the Unmoved Mover using an epistemology of observation and external proofs found in nature, philosophy has progressed to incorporate each of these as means by which man comes to understand all aspects of life and his existence. Throughout late Classical Antiquity and into the High Middles Ages, philosophers such as St. Augustine and St. Thomas Aquinas assured that each of these epistemologies found further expression in western Christian thought. The Neo-Platonist St. Augustine and the Aristotelian St. Thomas Aquinas gave credibility to each of these approaches to knowledge, in a way that has continued to inform and influence man’s quest for truth. Over the centuries that have passed since the first mention of the Shroud of Turin in the documented historical record, these epistemologies have largely not been in competition for understanding this relic. The reason for this is found in the nature of the Shroud itself, which continues to reveal new information about itself as new and more sophisticated methods of science have developed. Until the late nineteenth century, those who venerated the cloth did so without knowing the fullness of the photographic image imprinted there, meaning they venerated from a standpoint of faith what they received to be truth, with no further external evidence. Following the exposure of the full image on the cloth, the epistemology applied to Shroud studies has shifted to one of science and empiricism, as it became obvious through observation that the Shroud was much more than a simple medieval forgery or odd artifact. Inquiry and ongoing exploration of the Shroud of Turin must be approached with respect for each epistemology, given their historical association with both man’s quest for knowledge and this specific relic itself. To date, each philosophical construct unnecessarily suffers from a suspicion of the other, and yet each falls short in answering the seemingly unanswerable. Through a historical and philosophical analysis of the ways in which man has approached this unusual and unique cloth, this paper will explore the implications of advancing both epistemologies for future study and progress toward truth.

10:20 am to 11:00 am “Physical Cause of Jesus’ Death” by Pietro Pescetelli.
The Shroud of Turin is a source of information with forensic value. On the light of Synoptic Gospels and using the Shroud as an autoptic finding, the author assumes heart infarction and its complications, heart rupture and hemopericardium, to be the leading cause of Jesus’ death on the cross.

11:05 am to 11:25 am “Identifying the Tomb of Jesus for Turin Shroud Research” by Dean Schulz.
A hypothesis has been proposed wherein particle radiation played a role in the image formation on the Turin Shroud and/or in the skewing of its carbon-14 dating [Antonacci 2001, 2015; Rucker 2016]. If so, and if indeed the man imaged on the Shroud was Jesus, then it would be important to analyze samples of the limestone in the correct tomb where his body and the Shroud were placed. If neutron radiation were involved, detecting the unnaturally occurring Calcium-41 isotope would be convincing evidence to substantiate the radiation hypothesis and associate the Shroud specifically with Jesus. So this paper examines several purported sites for Jesus' burial, evaluates their merit, and proposes sites for future sampling and analysis.

11:30 am to 12:00 am “The Mandylion in Constantinople: Literary and Iconographic Sources” by Alfonso Caccese, Emanuela Marinelli, Laura Provera, and Domenico Repice.
The ancient Image of Edessa was moved to Constantinople in the year 944. This image, which is called Sindon in some sources, begins to be called Holy Mandylion right in the Byzantine capital. The solemn arrival in Constantinople is extensively described in the Narratio de Imagine Edessena attributed to the emperor Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus (10th century). The Sermon of Gregory Referendarius and the Codex Vossianus, both of the 10th century, describe the Edessa Image as the image of a whole human body. The Edessa Image is described in the Acts of Thaddeus with the term tetradiplon (folded four times). These testimonies contribute to validate the hypothesis that the Edessa Image is actually the Shroud, folded. The depictions of the Man of Sorrows that circulated in Constantinople during the period of the ascertained presence of the Edessa Image find the confirmation of their probable sindonic origin in the literary sources. The authors also investigate the relationship between the Holy Shroud and the new depictions of the suffering Christ that originate in Constantinople in the period of the presence of the Mandylion. The image of the dead Christ, emerging from a tomb with his arms crossed, begins to spread. The image of the crucifix is also transformed: the still-living Christ gives way to the dead Christ, who is also depicted when he has just been removed from the cross and put on a sheet. These depictions seem to be referring to a progressive knowledge of the true nature of the Mandylion: a cloth with the entire image of the dead Christ. The existence of the Throne of the Magnaura is well-known; we can hypothesize the existence of a similar mechanism to exhibit the Mandylion-Shroud with equal authority. To confirm what has been stated above, the authors present some significant iconographic testimonies.

1:30 pm to 2:00 pm “Who Saw the Mandylion and What was its Size?” by Mario Latendresse.
The Abgar Legend recounts the story of the creation of a miraculous image of Christ, the Image of Edessa. In 944, the Edessenian image is transferred to Constantinople and becomes known as the Mandylion, which is represented as a cloth impressed with the face of Christ. Despite the work of many scholars on the origin and nature of the Mandylion, its exact size and appearance have not been conclusively settled. We address two specific questions: who saw the real Mandylion? What was its size? Answering these questions requires a study of many essential documents: the Abgar Legend; the medieval renditions of the Mandylion; the manuscripts describing the arrival and the keeping of the Mandylion in Constantinople; the pilgrim’s stories mentioning the Mandylion in Constantinople; the manuscripts describing the arrival and keeping of the Mandylion and its reliquary at the Sainte-Chapelle of Paris; and more. It appears that very few may have seen the Mandylion in Edessa, Constantinople and Paris.

2:05 pm to 3:05 pm “Geoffrey de Charny’s Acquisition of the Shroud of Turin: Texts, Fictions, and Forgeries” by Jack Markwardt.
In approximately 1355-1356, the Shroud of Turin was publicly exhibited in the small French village of Lirey. The manner in which its then-owner, Geoffrey de Charny, an esteemed knight, acquired the relic has remained unknown for more than six and a half centuries. Over the course of the last one hundred and fifteen years, various hypotheses have attempted to explain Geoffrey’s ownership of the relic, each of which proceeds upon the assumption that the Turin Shroud was the imaged sindon which, in 1203 and 1204, was publicly exhibited in Constantinople. This paper will analyze the fifteen most prominent of these theories and the historical texts, the historical fictions, and the historical forgeries upon which each of these narratives is based. It will examine the various proposed chains of ownership which run from the Byzantine emperor to Geoffrey de Charny, assess the plausibility of their component links, and review the multiple factors which determine whether such theories should be, or should not be, considered convincing.

3:30 pm to 4:05 pm “The Holy Shroud and Othon de La Roche: notes for a working hypothesis on the “Missing Years” (1204-1356)” by Alessandro Piana, read by Michela Marinelli.
The Holy Shroud disappear from Constantinople during the Crusade in 1204. Some elements seems to confirm the presence of the Shroud in Athens since 1205 when, after the splitting up of the Byzantine Empire, Othon de La Roche, baron of Ray-sur-Saône, became Lord of Athens. Many tracks suggest that, after 1225, Othon came back into France with the Shroud. After his death, in 1234, the Shroud remained in Ray-sur-Saône family hands until its handing over to the de Vergy family. Thanks to Jeanne de Vergy, related in the fifth generation with Othon, the Shroud would have been shown in public in Lirey, France.

4:10 pm to 4:45 pm “There is no Evidence that Othon de la Roche Acquired the Shroud of Turin” by Mario Lantendresse.
In 1714, the Jesuit Pierre-Joseph Dunod wrote a dissertation for the authenticity of the Shroud of Besançon, and that Othon de la Roche had acquired the Shroud of Christ during the Fourth Crusade. That dissertation is in manuscript 826 of the municipal library of Besançon. In 1902, Dom François Chamard modified the arguments of that dissertation concluding instead that Othon’s acquisition is the Shroud of Turin. In 1981, Pasquale Rinaldi presented a copy of a supposed letter of Theodore Angelos Komnenos Doukas to Pope Innocent III, supposedly written in August 1205, stating that the Shroud of Christ was being kept in Athens. Several researchers have claimed that a “family tradition” substantiates that a small coffer at the castle of Ray-sur-Saône had been used to transport the Shroud of Christ from Athens to France. These primary sources have been used to substantiate several theses for the transfer of the Shroud from the Middle East to the collegiate of Lirey. In this presentation, I show new evidences that these sources have no reliable historical foundation.

6:20 pm to 7:05 pm “The Shroud of Turin and the Sainte-Chapelle of Paris” by Mario Latendresse.
The provenance of the Shroud at Lirey, France, has often been considered obscure. However, there is a direct and natural route for its provenance by following the fundamental historical documents: the receipt of Humbert de Villersexel listing the relics of Lirey; the notice Pour Scavoir la Vérité; the statements of Marguerite de Charny and her father Geoffroy II; and documents related to the financial supports for the collegiate at Lirey. These documents lead to the relics in the Grande Châsse of the Sainte-Chapelle of Paris, which contained twenty-two relics received from Constantinople in 1239-1242. The only possible relic similar to the Shroud in the Grande Châsse is the Sanctam Toella tabula insertam (A Holy Cloth inserted in a table). I will present a detailed analysis of the French inventories of the Grande Châsse showing that the Holy Cloth likely disappeared from the Sainte-Chapelle before 1534. This analysis answers many objections that were raised against the thesis of the Sainte-Chapelle. Based on historical documents, I will also propose a new place and date for the transfer of the Shroud from King Philippe VI to Geoffroy de Charny.

7:10 pm to 7:40 pm “The image of Edessa included the whole body but only its empty reliquary arrived at Paris” by Cesar Barta.
It is proposed that the image of Edessa was inside the shrine covered with a Tallit. This originated the Aura of Jesus. When the Mandylion was moved to Constantinople, several references show that the image involved the whole body. The way to show this shroud described by Clary should be the origin of the Imago Pietatis. Some paintings of this last show the back of the man in the backside of the canvas. We propose a new hypothesis: the Mandylion kept in Edessa in a reliquary opaque becoming an empty reliquary in Constantinople. Only this empty shrine was sent to the Sainte Chapelle of Paris.

7:45 pm to 8:15 pm “The Simony Theory: The Passage of the Shroud of Turin from Constantinople to Lirey” by Jack Markwardt.
If, as many believe, the Shroud of Turin was the sindon which bore a full-length image of Jesus and was publicly exhibited in Constantinople at the beginning of the thirteenth century, its movements and whereabouts during the so-called “Missing Years” (1204-1355) remain a mystery, as does the manner in which it came to be acquired by its first record owner, Geoffrey de Charny, a French knight who exhibited the cloth at Lirey in 1355 and 1356. This paper presents a completely new theory of the Shroud’s passage from Constantinople to Lirey, one which is entirely consistent with historical texts, presents plausible transfers of the relic, and explains why Geoffrey and the Church did not speak about the relic’s provenance, why the Pope imposed perpetual silence regarding the cloth, and why, for almost seven centuries, the “Missing Years” have been missing.

8:20 pm to 8:50 pm “Avignon and the Shroud of Turin: Authenticity Confirmed” by Jack Markwardt.
The circumstances which surround the fourteenth-century exhibitions of the Shroud in the small French hamlet of Lirey continue to confound historians. The initial expositions go unreferenced in Vatican archives and appear to have proceeded without papal approval. With regard to the later expositions, the sanctioning Pope concealed his reasons for allowing them to take place, silenced a bishop who alleged the relic’s fraudulence, and issued three inconsistent bulls regarding how the cloth was to be described when exhibited. In addition, both the relic’s owners and the Church never publicly disclosed its provenance. This paper will resolve all of the mysteries which surround the Lirey exhibitions and demonstrate that, before they were permitted to commence, the Church determined that the Shroud of Turin was an authentic relic of Jesus Christ. For five centuries thereafter, the Vatican referred to the Shroud as Jesus’ actual burial cloth; however, for reasons which this paper will reveal, the Church now alludes to the relic as an icon, or image.

8:55 pm to 9:40 pm Panel Discussion on History



Friday, July 21, 2017, Science & Dating of the Shroud

8:10 am to 8:40 am “Uncovering the Frailties of Ecclesiastical Authorities in the Holy Shroud Guild Archives” by Giorgio Bracaglia.
The ultimate contribution by the Holy Shroud Guild was to lead an American team of scientist during the 1978 Ostension. The occasion marked the first time that Americans were part of an international collaboration in Shroud research. However, in less than two years, the relationship between the American scientists, and Turin's ecclesiastical became embittered. Many blame the dissent of Doctor McCrone, who insisted the Shroud was a painting, while others faulted Professor Gove beginning in 1977, for sabotaging STURP's involvement during the 1988 radiocarbon testing, or Father Filas announcement of the Lepton coin. As damaging as the McCrone, Gove, and Filas’ incidents appear, assessing the total summation of all the Guild's archives during the American cooperation there does emerge one underlying cause for the collapse of international collaboration. This presentation explores one episode of many that collectively demonstrates the cause that eroded the collaboration between the groups.

8:45 am to 9:15 am “Pollens on the Shroud and the Sudarium of Oviedo” by Marzia Boi, presented by Cesar Barta

9:20 am to 9:55 am “Sources of DNA on the Shroud” by Gianni Barcaccia.
The main findings from the testing of genomic DNA extracted from dust particles vacuumed from distinct parts of the Turin Shroud are presented and critically discussed. Several plant taxa native to the Mediterranean area were identified as well as species with a primary center of origin in Asia, the Middle East or the Americas but most likely introduced in a historical interval later than the Medieval period. Regarding human mitogenome lineages, our analyses detected sequences from multiple subjects of different ethnic origins, which clustered into a number of Western Eurasian haplogroups, including some known to be typical of Western Europe (5.7%), the Middle East (55.6%) and the Indian sub-continent (38.7%). Such diversity does not exclude a Medieval origin in Europe but it is also fully compatible with the historical and geographical path followed by the Shroud during its presumed journey from the Near East.

10:15 am to 10:35 am “Use of the VP-8 Image Analyzer with a photograph of the Shroud of Turin exhibiting 3D results” by Janis Winchester.
This research uses a VP-8 Image Analyzer, manufactured by Interpretation Systems Inc., with a photograph of the Shroud of Turin. The image emerging on the oscilloscope of the VP-8 shows the information embedded on the fibers of the image on the Shroud of Turin. The findings detail the pattern of the discolored fibers that show wounds of a spear entrance and exit point and other marks of a man who died by crucifixion. The unique feature is the 3D appearance from the 2D photograph of the Shroud of Turin. No other photograph shows this characteristic. A thank you is extended to Shroud Researcher Mr. Kevin Moran for the use of his VP-8 Image Analyzer, and assisting with a video for this presentation.

10:40 am to 11:10 am “The “Other Images” on the Shroud of Turin” by Paolo Di Lazzaro and Daniele Murra.
Photographs made with different techniques and setup disagree with each other, because of the different illumination sources and different resolution papers or digital file. This is evident comparing body images by Enrie (1931), Schwortz (1978), Miller (1978), Durante (1997 and 2002), and Haltadefinizione (2008). To make the faint body image more visible, it is necessary to increase its contrast, e.g., by image elaboration software. When increasing the image contrast, it is easy to create false pixels, that is, pixels originally having an intermediate grey level that do not contribute to the image, which are arbitrarily transformed to black or white pixels. Human perception can elaborate and join ensembles of false image pixels to find a similar image in our memory, thus giving them a meaning possibly coherent with our expectation. In this talk we will present an application of the science of perception, namely the study of the “other images” on the Shroud (coins, flowers, anatomic details, images on the back of the cloth) that are invisible to the naked eye but emerge after image processing of photographs of the Shroud. We will discuss the probability they are really present on the cloth or rather they are clever products of our mind.

11:15 am to 12:00 am “Numismatic dating of the Turin Shroud through the analysis of Byzantine coins” by Giulio Fanti.
The 1988 radiocarbon dating of the Turin Shroud (TS) assigned a calibrated calendar age of 1260-1390 A.D. with a 95% confidence for the linen fabric, but three recent alternative dating methods assigned an age compatible with the First Century A.D., the period in which Jesus Christ lived in Palestine. The present analysis is based on the face and on the posture of Christ reported on many Byzantine coins that clearly demonstrate that the TS was seen starting from 692 A.D., the year in which the emperor Justinian II represented the face of Christ on the coins for the first time in the history. It is interesting to observe that, as not all the peculiar details of the TS face were represented in such a small depiction of a coin, the choice of which detail had to be considered was let to the single engraver. Therefore, we can see coins made by different officials, under the same emperor, showing different details, all typical of the TS face, but with different faces of Christ. With the time passing, not all the engravers had the possibility to observe directly the TS; as a result, a degradation of the similarity with the TS of the produced face of Christ results. Nevertheless, when the TS was taken to Constantinople in 944 A.D., we detect a great improvement of the partially lost similarity. This is also demonstrated by an analysis based on the variation of the ratio between eyes distance and nose length. From a probabilistic analysis, it results that the Byzantine engraver who represented Christ on the gold solidus, semissis, tremissis and silver hexagram during the period of Justinian II would have only seven chances in one billion of billions of different possibilities of hitting these peculiar features all together without having seen the TS; this demonstrates that the TS was seen in the first Millennium A.D. The paper also presents a tracking shot of the various features, different century by century, but all in agreement with the TS body image, reported in the Byzantine coins up to the fall of the Byzantine Empire in 1204 A.D. and in the following centuries, evidencing the various features of the TS image frequently reproduced in accordance with Byzantine canons.

12:00 pm to 12:05 pm “Hypothesis of face-cloth wrapping of the Turin Shroud Man: experimental and numerical results” by Gianmaria Concheri, Giulio Fanti and Sergio Rodella.
Studies of sheets with the Turin Shroud (TS) body image impressed in them, wrapping a life-size sculpture of the TS Man very recently produced by the sculptor Sergio Rodella, resulted in a preliminary hypothesis of how the TS was posed over the Man. In particular from the preliminary results obtained by wrapping only the face, and measured by means of a 3D scanner, it indicates that the TS wrapped the TS Man tighter than some hypotheses proposed in the past. A very preliminary numerical simulation of the face wrapping is also presented. If confirmed by additional studies performed along the whole body of the life-size sculpture of the TS Man, these results assist in refining the various body image formation hypotheses that, up to now, are not able to explain all the very peculiar features of the TS body image.

1:10 pm to 2:10 pm “Politics of the Shroud C-14 Dating” by Joe Marino.
In 1978, the Shroud of Turin Research Project spent five days studying the linen cloth believed by many to be the burial cloth of Jesus of Nazareth. The group found no evidence that it was a forgery and was unable to determine how the image had been formed. In 1988, laboratories in Tucson, Oxford and Zurich performed a radiocarbon dating on the Shroud of Turin with resulting dates of AD 1260-1390. Using multiple sources, including first-hand accounts by individuals involved in the dating, and a recently-discovered 1989 doctoral dissertation containing startling admissions from some of the principle characters, this paper will show in chronological fashion how the search for the truth of the real age of the Shroud of Turin was compromised by personality conflicts, questionable actions by participants, contradictory and concealed data, and broken protocols. The data recounted indicate that the C-14 results should not be accepted as valid.

2:15 pm to 2:45 pm “Invisible Reweave on the Shroud: Evidence For” by Joe Marino.
When the 1988 Shroud of Turin C-14 dating results were announced as AD 1260-1390, some researchers, based on previous data collected, especially by the 1978 Shroud of Turin Research Project (STURP) that showed no indication that the cloth was a forgery, suggested that the area from which the C-14 sample had been taken was a repaired area. In 2000, the author, along with his late wife Sue Benford, presented an in-depth paper about the possibility of a repair at a conference in Orvieto, Italy. The late Ray Rogers, a chemist on the STURP team, thought that the hypothesis was nonsense and set out to prove us wrong, as he had samples from the C-14 area as well as the main body of the Shroud. To his surprise, the data he found supported the repair hypothesis. Evidence pointing to repairs is also presented from other important sindonologists.

2:50 pm to 3:10 pm “Was the Shroud of Turin Invisibly Rewoven with Foreign Material at the Radiocarbon Site to Match the Rest of the Cloth?” by Mark Antonacci.
This presentation discusses the evidence on the Shroud or its samples of an "invisible" reweave or the presence of any added dye or coating on any material added to the Shroud at or near the vicinity of its 1988 radiocarbon site.

3:30 pm to 4:10 pm “Dating Techniques other than Carbon Dating” by Giulio Fanti.

4:15 pm to 4:55 pm “Statistical Analysis of the 1988 Carbon dating” by Bob Rucker.
In 1988, samples were cut from the bottom corner of the Shroud and sent to three laboratories for C14 dating. Statistical analysis of the results was published Feb. 16, 1989 in the British Journal Nature (P. E. Damon, et al). The average value obtained by the three laboratories (1260 AD) was based on the assumption that only random measurement errors were causing the variation in the measurements, but detailed statistical analysis indicates there is only a 1.4% probability of this being true. This means that it is highly likely (~98% probability) there was also something affecting, or biasing, all the measurement values as a function of some parameter, i.e. it was not random. In statistical analysis terminology, this is called a systematic (in contrast to random) bias. The statistical analysis reported in Damon did not recognize the presence of this systematic bias. Since the presence and nature of this systematic bias was not recognized, the effect of it could not be corrected for in the measurement values. Therefore, the C14 dates should not be regarded as accurate because the measured values were not corrected for whatever was affecting them, i.e. the systematic bias.

6:30 pm to 7:05 pm “The Neutron Absorption Hypothesis” by Bob Rucker.
Detailed statistical analysis of the C14 dates indicates that something other than random measurement error was affecting the measurements. Plotting the average values from the three laboratories indicates that the C14 dates change by about 36 to 38 years/cm (91 to 97 years/inch) as the sample point moves away from the bottom edge of the Shroud and toward the center of the body mass. There is much evidence that the straw-yellow discoloration on the Shroud was caused by a burst of radiation from the body. If this burst of radiation included neutrons, then the shape of the neutron distribution in the tomb as calculated by the MCNP nuclear analysis computer software would have caused the 36 to 38 years/cm slope in the calculated values by the [N14 + neutron  C14 + proton] reaction. The hypothesis that neutrons were included in the burst of radiation explains the four things that are known about C14 dating and the Shroud (1260 AD date, slope of 36 to 38 years/cm, range of the measured values: 1155 to 1410 AD, and a 700 AD C14 date for the Sudarium of Oveido). The alternate explanation of an invisible patch or reweave is only supported by the first two items.

7:10 pm to 8:40 pm “Art, Icon, or Relic” by Russ Breault.
This is a presentation on the role of art in exploring and revealing an ancient mystery. Is the famous Shroud of Turin the work of a medieval artist? Is it a religious icon or is it a relic of a historical event? This comprehensive presentation will look at art as historical depiction, art copies of the original, the influence of the Shroud on Byzantine art, comparison of art during the middle ages, and mechanics of art such as style, technique, substances and process. This presentation includes over 200 images. 90 minutes.

8:45 pm to 9:30 pm Panel Discussion on Dating



Saturday, July 22, 2017, Image Formation on the Shroud

8:15 am to 8:40 am “Image Characteristics” by Giulio Fanti.

8:45 am to 9:00 am “Explaining the Color of the Blood on the Shroud” by Paolo Di Lazzaro, A. Di Lascio, P. Iacomussi, M. Missori, and D. Murra.
One of the most puzzling scientific problems of the Turin Shroud (TS) is the carmine color of the bloodstains, since they are at least several centuries old. We do not know any other old bloodstain on cloth that is still colored carmine. This simple observation rules out “physiological” explanations and opens two different hypotheses: the bloodstains contain a mix of blood (as found by Baima Bollone and independently by Heller and Adler) and a reddish paint (as found by McCrone), or the blood marks on the TS were exposed to a unique factor that changed the blood chemistry. As an example, Goldoni proposed the hypothesis that the high concentration of bilirubin in the bloodstains on the TS could be responsible for the unusual color of the blood marks, after an irradiation of ultraviolet (UV) light suitable to activate photo-chemistry reactions of bilirubin with, e.g., carbon monoxide. In this presentation, we will detail two unpublished results that test both hypotheses, to some extent.

9:05 am to 9:35 am “Chemistry of the Image Imprinting Process” by Jose Carlos Godinez.
The Turin Shroud is a linen cloth basically made of cellulose. During its bleaching process, a very thin coating of carbohydrates (hexoses) would have been deposited on its surface. Spectroscopic analysis and micro chemical tests on the image area, concluded that aldehydes and carboxylic acids were the only groups allowed to be at the image chromophore having a double bond conjugated system that resulted from the oxidation and dehydratation of cellulose or hexoses. The image is not a scorch, however Hydroximetil furfural (HMF) was detected in the pyrolysis mass spectrum. HMF is not solely a pyrolytic product, its formation can also be induced by the photochemical degradation (radiation) of carbohydrates in a Hydrogen rich environment. The HMF because of its yellow sepia color and a carbonyl conjugated system, can here be proposed as the image chromophore. There is at the image a 131 amu unknown compound. If it is assumed that a Hydrogen strangelet (5 amu) is forming part of the HMF nuclei (MW 126), or just trapped within, it can account for the unknown 131 molecule.

9:40 am to 9:55 am “Naturalistic Processes for Image Formation” by Mark Antonacci.
This presentation discusses the success or lack of success of naturalistic methods in duplicating the various features on the Shroud's body images and their blood marks.

10:15 am to 11:00 am “Role of Information and Radiation in Image Formation” by Bob Rucker.
To understand the image on the Shroud, it is necessary to understand the role of information and radiation. Three things were required to form the image on the Shroud: a discolorization mechanism, energy to drive the mechanism, and information to control the mechanism. The information that defines the appearance of a naked crucified man must have been deposited on the Shroud to control the discolorization mechanism. This information must have come from the body. The only option to transported or communicated this information from the body to the Shroud appears to be radiation. Other options for communicating information from one location to another would not work for the image on the Shroud. The radiation that communicated the information to the Shroud regarding the appearance of a naked crucified man could also have provided the required energy to drive the discoloration mechanism. The presence of bones in the Shroud image indicates that the radiation was evidently emitted from within the body. The good resolution images of the front and back of the body, without side images, indicates the radiation was evidently vertically collimated both up and down, like a million vertically oriented lasers going off at once in the body.

11:05 am to 11:35 am “Critical Analysis about the Radiation Direction in the Formation of the Shroud of Turin Image” by R. Campion and Giulio Fanti.
Recent studies on the image of the Turin Shroud (TS) lead us to think it could have been formed through a not well identified mechanism of energy radiation. To remove some unknowns about this imaging process, a reverse engineering method has been applied. In particular, the present work has simulated the image formation of a human face on a cloth by using an ad-hoc developed software. The results of three different directions of the radiation have been simulated, each connected with a particular hypothesis of image formation: diffusive Lambertian direction, perpendicular to the emitting surface, and vertical. On the basis of the analysis of the different images produced, some useful comments both about the kind of radiation and the cloth wrapping conditions have been obtained. The effect of image distortion of a cloth wrapped around a face has been discussed also proposing the most probable law of radiation attenuation with distance. None of the three hypothesis produces an image comparable with that impressed on the TS thus suggesting that this image is due to a directional but more complex radiation whose laws are considered with corresponding boundary conditions.

1:00 pm to 1:30 pm “Characteristics of the Image and Its Formation” by Giuseppe Baldacchini
According to the project STURP and other studies, the Shroud of Turin is not a fake, but its mere existence cannot be explained by science, and especially the remarkable body image that covers its entire length remains a mystery. Here, this serious impasse has been overcome by resorting to a virtual Matter-Antimatter Annihilation process, where the body of the Man of the Shroud disintegrates totally and soon after is restored anew with delivery of a small amount of energy, as allowed by the CP (Charge-Parity) violation, which is spent to mark the Shroud as it looks today. However unlikely this process may seem; its consequences are in a surprising agreement with the experimental evidences. The present hypothesis went a long way to address the ultimate quest of the hidden aspects of the Shroud, but the uniqueness of its marks is still posing insurmountable difficulties for our limited knowledge concerning the still foggy boundaries between life and death.

1:30 pm to 2:00 pm “A Geometric Mechanism for the Image Formation on the Shroud of Turin” by Mario Latendresse.
The image formation mechanism on the Shroud of Turin can be divided into two components: the geometry of the cloth versus the body and the physicochemical mechanism forming the image on the cloth. This presentation focuses on the geometry component. I will show that the cloth did not move before or during the image formation because that would be incompatible with the location of the bloodstains relative to the image. In particular, it will be shown that the bloodstains seen in the hair, near the cheeks, are likely from the hair and not the cheeks as it has been proposed. The characteristics of the blood flow do not preclude this possibility and the photograph of the underside of the Shroud of Turin is coherent with this observation. The projection of the image of the body to the cloth can be explained by a simple general law that does not depend on gravity or any orientation of the body.

2:05 pm to 2:35 pm “Linen Coloration by Pulsed Radiation, A Review” by Paolo Di Lazzaro and Daniele Murra.
Several years ago, it was demonstrated that very short and intense bursts of Vacuum Ultraviolet radiation could generate a truly Shroud-like coloration at the microscopy level. It is time to rewind the tape and put those experimental results in their proper context: the motivations of the work, the search for the optimum (but hard to achieve) working point, the photochemistry clues, the repeatability of the results, the scaling up from coloration to image production, what our results have really shown from a strictly scientific point of view, what are the implications in other areas such as philosophy and metaphysics, what journalists (and some scientists too) have misunderstood. The talk will present a fascinating survey of 10 years of experimental attempts, efforts, intuitions, insights, accomplishments, disappointments, controversies.

2:40 pm to 3:00 pm “Chromosome acting as loop antenna matches wavelength for colorization of Shroud of Turin” by Tony Fleming.
This presentation asks the question whether there a biological reason for the coloration of Shroud-like linen that was found using a single ArF Excimer laser as reported by Paolo Di Lazarro and a number of others in 2010 and 2012? Supposing the Shroud to be authentic, we can also ask whether there a connection between the coloration of the image found on the Shroud of Turin and the biophysics within TSM’s (Turin Shroud Man’s) body? Another way of asking this question is: could the many chromosomes within TSM’s Body have acted as tiny lasers, many little loop antennas all over the Body emitting UV light perpendicularly outwards from within TSM’s skin thus forming the image on the Shroud? This present study looks at the possibility that TSM’s chromosomes may have reacted with the Shroud since the wavelengths of both are very close to each other, the chromosomes in TSM’s body and the ArF Excimer laser.

3:20 pm to 4:00 pm “Image Formation by Corona Discharge” by Giulio Fanti.

4:05 pm to 4:20 pm “Experimental Effects of Coronal Discharges on Linen” by Michael Schaffer.
Plasmas can leave a permanent, yellow discoloration in very shallow layers on linen surfaces, very similar to those measured on the Shroud of Turin image. Fanti & colleagues have strengthened the case for a plasma role by experimentally forming Shroud-like images of a linen-draped, 3D manikin using corona discharges. (1) Plasma in the tomb requires a natural energy source. I researched lightning literature and confirmed that even in 3D, lightning’s electric field penetrates about as deeply as the common 1D electric skin depth. In dry limestone it is typically 10s of meters, short enough for a nearby strike to make a strong field inside a tomb. (2) My first experimental goal is to produce about 1 cc of plasma in ambient air without carbonizing linen. I could send other researchers small, plasma-exposed linen samples for further study.

4:25 pm to 4:55 pm “Free Electron Model of Image Formation on Shroud of Turin” by Chuck Rogers.
A theoretical study is made of expected consequences should a dead body wrapped in a linen cloth be pulled into a universe of higher dimensionality. A Free Electron Model of Image Creation is proposed to explain how its disappearance might create an image on linen. An interface is assumed to open up along the body’s midplane and to extend laterally to its edges. This interface expands to swallow the body, while leaving void populated by free electrons that create charged layers on interior surfaces. When an interface reaches skin, electrons moving in front of it burst out of the body cavity to cast shadows of surface features onto cloth. Photon radiation is generated. Low conductivity of linen keeps charge fixed in place long enough for fibers to oxidize without distorting electronic shadows. Attenuation of electrons in air reduces charge deposited behind air gaps. Patterns of oxidation combine with charge-free areas behind air gaps to create an image of an entire man. At first invisible, the image turns straw-yellow over time and becomes visible.

6:30 pm to 7:00 pm “Image Formation by Charged Nuclear Particles” by Arthur Lind.
The cause of the image on the Shroud of Turin appears to be an image not formed by human hands. Because the Shroud radiocarbon dated to 1325, it has been suggested that during the resurrection Christ’s body dematerialized and in doing so both neutrons and protons were emitted. The neutrons reacted with the nitrogen in the Shroud to produce radiocarbon, making the radiocarbon date appear to be 1325. The protons produced the image. This presentation will examine if the image could have been formed by high energy protons.

7:05 pm to 7:35 pm “Evidence for Image Formation by a Cloth Collapse Model” by Mark Antonacci.

7:40 pm to 7:55 pm “Problems with the Cloth Collapse Hypothesis for Image Formation” by Bob Rucker.
According to the cloth collapse hypothesis, when the body disappeared, the forces of gravity and air pressure difference would have caused the cloth to collapse through the “radiant region” where the body had been. The passage of the Shroud through this radiant region would have caused radiation in the region to discolor the cloth causing the image. There appear to be several problems with this concept: 1. Gravity only works downward so would not cause the dorsal side to go up into the radiant region. 2. In a very rapid disappearance of the body there may not be sufficient air flow to the outside of the bottom cloth to cause it to collapse. 3. A slow body disappearance may not produce a sufficient air pressure difference to move the cloth. 4. A significant air pressure difference would also cause the sides of the cloth to collapse, but there are no images of the sides of the body. 5. Radiation, whether particles such as protons or electrons, or photons such as ultra violet, moves much faster than a collapsing cloth could move. Thus, before the cloth had moved significantly, the radiation would have gone through the Shroud leaving no radiation within the so called radiant region. Whether the cloth collapses or not is then irrelevant.

8:00 pm to 8:20 pm “Do we really need new evidence and arguments about the Turin Shroud?” by Tristan Casabianca.
Since the 2000’s, the discussion about the authenticity of the Shroud of Turin has been reopened in mainstream scientific journals. Over the last few years, new global arguments regarding the ongoing controversy have been introduced. This paper argues that the dozens of recent scientific articles reinforcing the authenticity hypothesis and the development of analytical arguments show that the belief in the authenticity of the Turin Shroud is justified. But, even if new evidence and arguments are crucial in order to show what a reasonable answer should be, human beings can always, as free agents, hold unwarranted doubts and beliefs.

8:25 pm to 9:10 pm Panel discussion on image formation.

9:10 pm to 9:30 pm “Where are We Now and Where do we go from Here?” by Mark Antonacci



Biographies

Almenar, Jorge Manuel Rodrigues – He lives in Valencia, Spain. He is scheduled to present his Doctoral Thesis in Art History: "The Shroud and its implications Historical-artistic" on July 18, 2017. Since 1994 he is a full time Professor in the Civil Law Department at the University of Valencia. He is also the President of the Spanish Center for Sindonology (Centro Español de Sindonología - CES).

Antonacci, Mark - Mark Antonacci is an attorney in St. Louis. He has studied all aspects of the Shroud for over 35 years, and is the founder and president of the Test the Shroud Foundation. He wrote The Resurrection of the Shroud (New York: M. Evans and Co., 2000), the most comprehensive book ever written on the Shroud until his recent book, Test the Shroud, was published in 2016. He has proposed that a new series of minimally-invasive and non-destructive tests be performed on the Shroud at its atomic, molecular and other levels. He has written a scientific hypothesis that not only explains the Shroud’s body images, but also its radiocarbon dating, its excellent condition, its pristine human blood marks, their still-red coloration, the possible outer side imaging, coin features and flower images, skeletal features and all its other unique features. He asserts that new proposed tests could prove whether the Shroud was irradiated with particle radiation; whether the source was the length, width and depth of the crucified corpse in the cloth; when this event happened; where it occurred; the age of the Shroud and its blood; and the identity of the victim.

Baldacchini, Giuseppe - Giuseppe Baldacchini received the degree in physics from the University of Rome in 1965. Since then he has been working mainly at the Research Center of ENEA, Frascati, Rome, Italy, where he was Director of the Section Lasers and Accelerators until his retirement at the end of 2008. Lately, he irradiated linen cloths with excimer lasers to study the dynamics of coloration, an important process to understand the origin of the body image of the Shroud of Turin.

Baltz, Fred - Dr. Frederick W. Baltz is a member of the faculty of the Institute of Lutheran Theology, Brookings, South Dakota. He is also the Pastor of St. Matthew Lutheran Church, Galena, Illinois. He holds degrees from: Dana College, Blair, Nebraska; Wartburg Theological Seminary, Dubuque, Iowa; and The University of Dubuque Seminary, Dubuque, Iowa. Dr. Baltz has written numerous books and articles, and also appears in biblical education videos.

Barcaccia, Gianni - Ph.D. 1995 in Plant Reproductive Systems and Population Genetics at the University of Perugia (Italy). Since 2017, Full Professor of Plant Genetics at the University of Padova (Italy) and Adjunct Professor of Plant Breeding at the University of Georgia, Athens (USA). Chair Professor of Applied Genomics and Molecular Traceability in different B.Sc. and M.Sc. degree courses of the Academic School of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine (www.agrariamedicinaveterinaria.unipd.it/en/). Author of more than 100 scientific papers, both original articles and reviews, published in valuable international peer-reviewed journals. In addition, author of several academic books of Genetics, Genomics and Biotechnologies (for details, look for Gianni Barcaccia in https://scholar.google.it/ . Expertise in Molecular markers and Genomics, Plant Reproductive Systems and Plant Breeding, and Population Genetics. Emphasis on the use of DNA barcoding and DNA genotyping for the genetic identification of plant and animal species and populations.

Barta, Cesar - City: Madrid, Country: Spain Education: physicist Current or previous position: test engineer in the space industry for more than 25 years. Most significant contribution to Shroud research: He was involved in the Shroud research following its carbon 14 dating and he is member of the Centro Español de Sindonología (CES).

Boi, Marzia - City: Palma de Mallorca, Country: Spain, Education: PhD in Biology, Current or previous position: university professor and researcher in Palynology. Most significant contribution to Shroud research: study of pollen on the Sudario of Oviedo and bibliographic study and revision of Shroud pollen.

Bracaglia, Giorgio - Giorgio Bracaglia has over 41 years of experience in analog and digital imaging, specializing in color management. He is now working in research and development for a security printing firm formulating combinations of amplified modulation screen builds, angles, and screen resolution for phone app recognition and prevention of unwarranted reproduction. He is also doing research into and archiving of 60 years of scientific studies and spiritual materials developed at the Holy Shroud Guild (www.Holyshroudguild.org), the oldest Shroud organization in the United States. His goal is to preserve the work of the Holy Shroud Guild and author a book about the Guild’s history.

Breault, Russ - Russ Breault has been researching and lecturing on The Shroud of Turin for over 30 years, and is the president and founder of the Shroud of Turin Education Project Inc., the mission of which is to: “Advance the knowledge of the Shroud to a new generation.” He has participated in over a dozen international research symposiums since 1981 and three recent public exhibitions in Turin, Italy in 1998, 2000 and 2010. He is a long-time member of the Shroud Science Group, an international consortium of scientists and scholars dedicated to further research. His highly acclaimed presentation known as Shroud Encounter (www.ShroudEncounter.com) makes use of over 200 superb images and unfolds like a CSI investigation. Russ has presented to hundreds of audiences from New York to Hawaii. College and university presentations include Duke, Johns Hopkins, Penn State, Cal State and many others. He has appeared in several nationally televised documentaries and was a primary expert for EWTN’s documentary, “The Holy Winding Sheet”.

Caccese, Alfonso - Alfonso Caccese lives in Rome (Italy) where he teaches Catholic religion. He obtained a degree in Psychology at La Sapienza University in Rome and a doctorate in Greek patristic at the Pontifical Oriental Institute in Rome. He is a Master Iconographer; his icons are spread throughout Italy. He is co-founder of the Roman Association In Novitate Radix (www.innovitateradix.it). His research is about the influence of the Holy Shroud in the representation of Christ.

Casabianca, Tristan - , Ajaccio (France), M.A., LL.M. In 2013, Tristan Casabianca has applied traditional criteria of historical assessment to the Turin Shroud, in order to show which image formation hypothesis should be called the most likely.

Dalton, Fr. Andrew – Fr Andrew Dalton is a Catholic priest of the Legionaries of Christ, who found his vocation while studying at the Georgia Institute of Technology. After achieving a bachelor’s degree in philosophy and theology, he specialized in Biblical languages at the Pontifical Biblical Institute and Biblical Theology at the Pontifical University of the Holy Cross. As he pursues his doctorate, he is currently an adjunct professor of theology at the Pontifical Athenaeum Regina Apostolorum in Rome, Italy, where he teaches Biblical Hebrew, Biblical Greek, and the Synoptic Gospels. Fr Dalton is also an official trainer of Verbum Bible Software. Regarding the Shroud, Fr Dalton teaches the Biblical Theology of the Passion of the Christ as part of the Diploma in Shroud Studies offered by the Institute of Science and Faith in collaboration with the International Center of Sindonology in Turin and the Giulio Ricci Diocesan Center of Sindonology in Rome. Fr Dalton is also a board member for Othonia, a center for investigation and study of the Shroud with exhibitions all over the world.

Di Lascio, A. – Medical doctor in private practice.

Di Lazzaro, Paolo – Ph.D in physics, employed at ENEA, Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development, Frascati, Italy

Lind, Arthur - Dr. Lind has a PhD in physics and during his career has conducted research and development for the Watervliet Arsenal and the McDonnell Douglas Research Laboratories. After retiring in 1998 he continues to conduct development work for different companies.

Fanti, Giulio - Giulio Fanti is Associate Professor of Mechanical and Thermal Measurements since 1992 and at the Department of Industrial Engineering of the University of Padua since 1996. With reference to the Turin Shroud, he is coordinator of the Shroud Science group and member of the scientific committees of several conferences; his current research activity is aimed at the, at least partial, explanation of the process of body image formation (still not reproducible in its entirety), at the 3D reconstruction of the wrapped man's posture, at the dating of the Relic by means of alternative methods to C14 and at the micro/nano-analysis of bodily fluids to better define the effect of the tortures suffered by that Man. He is author of approximately 200 publications also published in Italian and international journals and books, most of them on subjects related to the Shroud.

Fleming, Tony - Tony Fleming, Melbourne, Australia, Ph.D. Research Scientist Department of Defence and Telstra, now working independently; in 2014 contributed the Biophotonics Hypothesis (https://www.shroud.com/pdfs/stlflemingpaper.pdf) to various theories of Shroud Image Formation. This hypothesis considered whether chromosomes acting during the cell cycle could cause a UV flash thus initiating the Image of the Shroud.

Godinez, Jose’ Carlos Espriella - Jose' Carlos Espriella Godinez from Mexico city. He studied Chemistry at the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM) and obtained a Masters degree at Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana. He is a chemistry professor at Escuela Nacional Preparatoria.

Iacomussi, P. – Currently employed at INRIM.

Latendresse, Dr. Mario - Dr. Mario Latendresse is a computer scientist at SRI International, Menlo Park, CA, USA. He holds a Ph.D. in computer science from the University of Montreal in Canada. He has published papers and a book related to the Shroud of Turin about image formation and history. He is the publisher of two web sites about the Shroud, in English at sindonology.org and in French at linceul.org.

Lind, Arthur – Art Lind, Ph.D in Physics, consults with several companies.

Marinelli, Emanuela - Emanuela Marinelli lives in Rome (Italy). She is retired after teaching Geography. She obtained two degrees, in Natural Sciences and in Geological Sciences, at La Sapienza University in Rome. She has been co-founder of Collegamento pro Sindone (www.shroud.it). She wrote many books on the Holy Shroud and was the Coordinator of the Organizing Committee of the Worldwide Congress Sindone 2000. On October 2015, she has been awarded the Gold Medal of Merit of the Catholic Culture.

Marino, Joseph. G. – Joe Marino has a B.A. in Theological Studies, currently works as a library associate at Ohio State University, and lives in Dublin, Ohio. He has documented numerous problems with the Shroud's C-14 dating, including evidence of a probable repair in that area of the sample.

Markwardt, Jack – Jack is a resident of Estero, Florida. He attended Rutgers University; Albany Law School, and holds a Juris Doctor degree (JD), cum laude. He is a trial attorney and legal editor. He is the author of numerous papers presented to international Shroud symposia which (1) place the Turin Shroud in ancient Antioch, link it to the evangelization of Edessa and the formulation of the Abgar legend, and identify it as the Byzantine Image of God Incarnate, a cloth brought to Constantinople in 574 and publicly exhibited there in 1203-1204; (2) repudiate the charges of fraudulence which were leveled against the Turin Shroud, in 1900-1903, by Canon Ulysse Chevalier and Reverend Herbert Thurston; (3) explain the Shroud’s whereabouts and movements prior to 1355, the manner of its acquisition by Geoffrey de Charny, and the silence regarding its provenance; and (4) establish that the Church investigated the Shroud and determined it to be an authentic relic of Jesus Christ.

Missori, M. – Currently employed at CNR.

Murra, Daniele – Currently employed at ENEA.

Pescetelli, Dr. Pietro - Pietro Pescetelli is an Italian Medical Doctor, born in Rome on 1954. He obtained a degree in Medicine and Surgery at the Catholic University of Sacred Heart of Rome. He is a specialist in Cardiology and Internal Medicine.

Piana, Alessandro – He lives in Monza, Italy, specializing on the history of the Shroud. He’s the author of books and articles on the Shroud. He lectures in Italy, participates in conferences and seminars, and participates in radio and TV broadcasting.

Provera, Laura - Laura Provera lives in Rome (Italy), where she teaches Greek in the Pontifical University Antonianum (Franciscan Fathers OFM) and has been Lecturer of Hebrew in the Waldensian Faculty of Theology. She obtained a Master of Arts at the University of Turin and a Sacred Scripture License at the Pontifical Biblical Institute of Rome. Her research is about historical and literary texts, regarding the Holy Shroud, of patristic and medieval period.

Respice, Domenico - Domenico Repice, Catholic priest, obtained the License in Dogmatic Theology at the Pontifical Gregorian University, where he is completing a PhD on the relationship between the Holy Shroud and the theology of the image. He is co-founder of the associations In Novitate Radix, (www.innovitateradix.it) and Amici Romani della Sindone. He organized many conventions about the Holy Shroud. He published several articles and the book Quattro percorsi accanto alla Sindone.

Rogers, Charles - Charles A. Rogers lives in Richland, Washington, U.S.A. He received his Bachelor of Arts degree in 1963 from Northwestern University and his Master of Science degree in 1964 from University of Illinois with a major in physics. He worked at Battelle Northwest Critical Mass Laboratory before transferring to Westinghouse Hanford Company as a nuclear criticality safety specialist. He also worked for several other companies on Hanford Plant Site before retiring in 2007. This is his first contribution to Shroud research.

Rucker, Robert A. (Bob) – Bob Rucker earned BS and MS degrees in nuclear engineering from the University of Michigan, and attended the Moody Bible Institute in Chicago for one year. He worked for 24 years at General Atomics in San Diego, California, doing nuclear analysis for core physics design of advanced nuclear reactors and led the “Statistics and Measurement Control” group doing by-monthly inventories of fissile material in a nuclear fuel fabrication facility. He next worked as a consultant for 13 years at various locations doing criticality safety calculations and documentation for nuclear fuel fabrication and handling. He is now using nuclear analysis computer calculations to model the Shroud covering a body in a tomb to solve the carbon dating problem.

Schaffer, Michael - Michael J. Schaffer was born in Los Angeles but lived mostly in San Diego, CA, USA. Graduated from MIT (Sc.D., Electrical Science and Engineering, 1966), he has 44 years of experience in fusion energy and plasma physics research, mostly at General Atomics. Retired, he is now interested in whether a plasma contributed to the Shroud image formation.

Schulz, Waldean - Waldean (“Dean”) Schulz, Spokane, WA, USA Ph.D. Computer Science, retired software engineer (16 patents). I have followed Shroud research and know a couple researchers/authors. I have made a number of presentations on the Shroud to small groups.

Siefker, Robert - Education Graduate Theological Union, Berkeley, California; Masters in Philosophy and Theology from the Dominican School of Theology and Philosophy 2001 (Student Graduation Speaker); University of Santa Clara, Santa Clara, California; Masters in Business Administration 1973; University of California, Berkeley, California; BS in Engineering 1969; UCLA, Engineering 1964-1968 on Navy Scholarship; Transfer by Navy to Berkeley for special engineering classes 1968. Vice President J.D Edwards & Company, Denver, Colorado (Large worldwide producer of enterprise management software) 1987-1999; Vice President The McCosker Corporation , Oakland, California (Producer of software for the construction and real estate industries) 1980-1987; Senior Engineer Kaiser Aluminum & Chemical Corporation, Oakland, California 1975-1980; United States Navy Civil Engineering Corps 1969-1975 (Okinawa and Vietnam with Seabees; Public Works Engineering Officer at Moffett Field Naval Air Station, Sunnyvale, California). Turin Shroud Center of Colorado (TSC) Affiliated since 2006 as research associate; Co-author of “The Shroud of Turin, A Critical Summary of Observations, Data, and Hypotheses” with John Jackson, PhD in physics and the Turin Shroud Center of Colorado (TSC) research staff.

White, Dr. Cheryl - Dr. Cheryl White is an Associate Professor of History with Louisiana State University at Shreveport. Her graduate studies emphasized medieval and early modern European history, with a secondary emphasis in the history of dogmatic theology. Her interest in Christian Church history and theology has driven her to be a frequent guest lecturer around the nation on the Shroud of Turin.

Janis Winchester – Janis Winchester received a BA from the University of Florida, and a MSPA from Florida State University. She was employed as a Forensic Scientist with the Florida Department of Law Enforcement for 38 years. She worked in the Crime Laboratory, Inspections, and the Training Academy, is a Fellow in the American Academy of Forensic Sciences and other professional organizations, and is now retired. She has studied the Shroud over the last 20 years, met with Shroud Researchers in Europe and America, accumulated a library of books about the Shroud, and attended the 2014 International Shroud Conference held in St. Louis.

The TRAC Center in Pasco, WA.

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The TRAC Center in Pasco, Washington state, is shown here. The Holiday Inn Express next to the TRAC Center is on the right.

​All photographs of the Shroud and the research on the Shroud are courtesy of Barrie Schwortz at www.shroud.com .